The PSLab device offers the Logic Analyzer functionality. A Logic Analyzer is a laboratory instrument that can capture and display digital signals from a digital system or circuit. It is similar to what an oscilloscope is for analog signals and is used to study timing relationship between different logic lines. It plots the **logic lines/timing diagram** which tells us the information about the state of the **Digital System **at any instant of time. For example, in the image below we can study the states of digital signals from channels **ID1, ID2, ID3** at different times and find parameters like the propagation delay. It’s also used to find errors in Integrated Circuits (ICs) and debug logic circuits.

**How I plotted ideal logic lines using MPAndroid Chart library?**

Conventional method of adding data points results in the plot as illustrated in the image below. By conventional method I mean basically adding Y-axis (logic state) values corresponding to X-axis values (timestamp).

In the above plot, logic lines follow non-ideal behaviour i.e they take some time in changing their state from high to low. This non-ideal behaviour of these lines increases when the user zooms in graph to analyse timestamps.

**Solution to how we can achieve ideal behaviour of logic lines:**

A better solution is to make use of timestamps for generating logic lines i.e time instants at which logic made a transition from **HIGH -> LOW** or **LOW -> HIGH**. Lets try to figure out with an example:

Timestamps = { 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 } and initial state is HIGH ( i.e at t = 0, it’s HIGH ). This implies that at t = 1, transition from HIGH to LOW took place so at t = 0, it’s HIGH, t = 1 it’s both HIGH and LOW, at t = 2 it’s LOW.

Now at t = 0 & t = 2, you can simple put y = 1 and 0 respectively. But how do you add data-point for t = 1. Trick is to see how transition is taking place, if it’s HIGH to LOW then add first 1 for t = 1 and then 0 for t = 1.

So the set of points look something like this:

( Y, X ) ( LOGIC **,** TIME ) **->** ( 1, 0 ) **( 1, 1 ) ( 0, 1)** ( 0, 2 ) **( 0, 3 ) ( 1, 3 )** ( 1, 4 ) …

Code snippet for adding coordinates in this fashion:

int[] time = timeStamps.get(j); for (int i = 0; i < time.length; i++) { if (initialState) { // Transition from HIGH -> LOW tempInput.add(new Entry(time[i], 1)); tempInput.add(new Entry(time[i], 0)); } else { // Transition from LOW -> HIGH tempInput.add(new Entry(time[i], 0)); tempInput.add(new Entry(time[i], 1)); } // changing state variable initialState = !initialState; }

After adding data-points in above mentioned way, we obtained ideal logic lines successfully as illustrated in the image given below

**Resources**

- Documentation of MPAndroid Chart library
- Sparkfun tutorials to learn more about Logic Blocks and Digital Logic